The field of energy management of buildings is regulated with standards and legislative acts. Crown document from a field of energy management of buildings is a standard SIST EN ISO 50001 and it is used for all kind of organizations, regardless of size and type of activity. In the field of legislative acts, there is a valid directive (2012/27/EU from European parliament and council), that offers a general framework for encouraging the energy efficiency in EU and also predicts numerous actions that support and provide the criteria of energy efficiency. In the public sector of Slovenia, the area is handled by "Regulation of energy management in the public sector (Ur. l. RS, št. 52/16)".
The enormous amount of waste heat which is released from industry often contains a large amount of exergy, and would be able to perform work through one of the many waste heat usage technologies. Thus, it may be of interest for possible investors in the Energy sector which, however, would need a quick answer as to whether their investment is going to be economically efficient or not. A web calculator was, therefore, developed within the frame of the CE-HEAT Programme, financed by Interreg, Central Europe, which can be used to check the technical feasibility and economic viability of a selected waste heat recovery technology, based only on basic information on the waste heat source and waste heat recovery system.
This paper deals with the presentation of living lab methodology and analysis of living lab results from the GRASPINNO project. The GRASPINNO living labs integrate research and innovation processes and create a user-oriented open innovation ecosystem that strengthens cooperation and networking of stakeholders, while stimulating innovations on the green energy market. Within the framework of the project, several living lab were established covering various areas, such as funding mechanisms for energy refurbishment of buildings, an electronic tool for green public procurement, green policies and energy management. The paper presents the evaluation analysis of living labs, based on online survey. The results of the survey, which involved almost 100 participants, showed that stakeholders in the living labs gained benefits and knowledge from various fields, including the possibility of creating innovative solutions.
Energy management in buildings, which is dictated by the Regulation on energy management in the public sector have important role for cost-effective management in public sector. The regulation can also be a useful tool for all other buildings. The process for calculation of the design heat load is presented in the standard SIST EN 12831 - Heating systems in buildings. The purpose of the article is to present these documents and to perform the calculation of the required heat load for the building. The calculation can be the basis for the production of an energy performance certificate and an extended energy review (REP). Theoretical bases for the model for calculating the required heat load for buildings are presented. An implementation of the model in the MS Excel software tool is made in the real case.
Every two years, the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E) publishes a Ten Year Network Development Plan (TYNDP), which provides an overview of the necessary expansion in the transmission network of the European Union (EU). The latest report (TYNDP 2018 ) includes three scenarios of possible future energy developments for Europe: Sustainable Transition, Distributed Generation and Global Climate Action. All three scenarios take the EU decarbonisation targets for 2030 into account. This report focuses on the analysis of the Sustainable Transition scenario. For this purpose, the development regarding to lines, power plant park, fuel and CO2 prices and consumption is implemented in the simulation model ATLANTIS until the year 2030. Thereafter, a simulation is performed and the results regarding produced energy per power plant type, share of renewable energy and CO2 emissions are discussed.
The energy economy in egypt is in transition. Especially consumers who are running their energy production based solely on fossil fuels are forced to start thinking about alternative possibilities. Egypt offers a big potential of sun and wind energy, while the top wind sites in Egypt are well documented and assessed in terms of wind energy, rural areas are still neglected in any climate assessment.
At the same time wind power in Europe develops very fast based on the European energy goals and the intensive subsidisation in many European countries. After the subsidisation period the used wind turbines are often replaced by bigger and more powerful ones, which offers the opportunity of a prolonged use of those used wind mills.
Following a 13 months measuring period a data analyses showed that the wind speed was not as expected. The theory that the available wind data is not accurate proved to be true for this site. A comprehensive site assesement showed negative economical feasibility, even with the approach of installing refurbished second hand turbines of central Europe. Nevertheless different scenarios with better wind sites, which are very likely to be present in other rural areas of Egypt, can display economic feasibility.
This article deals with some sources of heat, which can be potentially used as additional sources for heating and cooling of the locations in the energy-building complex with an already existing solution. An economic justification is given for the sensitivity of investments inside the proposed scenarios of energy supply with a heat pump, borehole heat exchanger and solar thermal collectors, as well. The economic and financial evaluation was carried out through a financial analysis of costs and savings consideration, which was made on the basis of the respective investment cash flow curve.
The energy sectors of a majority of countries globally are undergoing a transition from conventional thermal energy to clean renewable energy, with regards to a higher awareness on climate change. The electricity sector forms a major part of any energy sector. The transition of the electricity sector from conventional electricity generation to renewable energy is a tedious and long-term process. Furthermore, the transition process brings about a large number of complications on the electricity system. This has already been observed in the European Union (EU).
India is a country in the middle of such a transition process. Also, the Government of India (GoI) is committed to its stance on battling climate change, with the improvement of its electricity generation shares from renewable energy sources by the year 2030. In order to attain such an objective, the GoI has come up with ambitious objectives for capacity expansions of solar Photo-Voltaic (PV) and Wind power by the year 2025.
This study focuses on the analysis of a scenario with large scale electricity generation from Solar PV and onshore wind power capacities, distributed over the five different power regions in India. For the simulation of this scenario, the techno-economic model ATLANTIS_India, developed at the Institute of Electricity Economics and Energy Innovation, Graz University of Technology, has been used. The simulation results of such a scenario are analyzed and further discussed as conclusions for the study.
Digestate as a by-product of anaerobic digestion in the biogas production has the properties similar to high-quality fertilizer, since it is rich in both organic matter and in macro- and micronutrients. In general, digestate is applied to the land without further treatment, thus reducing the usage of industrially produced mineral fertilizers. However, a growing need for a more efficient nutrient management at the local and global level, conditioned on the depletion of natural resources and the legal restrictions on the use of fertilizers, is fueling the development of new technologies and approaches that allow higher concentrations of nutrients in the end-products compared to these of untreated digestate, whereby the final products can also be in the form of mineral fertilizers.
In recent decades there has become a widespread problem of growing amounts of waste and the burdens associated with waste materials (Abdel-Shafy and Mansour, 2018). Waste management presents a significant challenge in most of the countries worldwide (Guerrero et al., 2013) and will need to be changed from a linear system to more circular system to achieve the progress in sustainable development and more circular systems (Singh and Ordonez, 2016). In this work the possibility of using waste materials for production of synthesis gas is considered. Synthesis gas could further be used for many useful products, such as methanol (Hernández and Martín, 2016), biopolymers (Drzyzga et al., 2015), methyl acetate, ethylene (Zhou et al., 2018) and many other products. Various waste materials are considered in this work, such as biogas from waste, waste wood, municipal solid waste and waste CO2. For each waste material, process model of methanol production is developed using Aspen Plus simulator. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis in terms of methanol prices, and availability and prices of waste materials is performed. The solutions obtained are compared with the solution using natural gas as a raw material for methanol production.
The transformation of the electrical energy system to allow greater use of RES, energy self-sufficiency and stabilization of the supply of heavily loaded networks will have to include micro networks. Users will have to adjust slightly for the actual implementation of micro networks. There will be some legislative, behavioural and procedural changes that make the development of decentralized microsystems more difficult. It will also require training of potential users and information on new technologies for all stakeholders.
In the simulated microgrid pilot example, various variants of the operation of such a network of interconnections of several buildings were simulated, on which a system of accurate measurement of consumed and produced electricity was established. On the basis of these simulations we determined the performance characteristics under the current profiles of energy consumption and production at the site. Also, the supply of RES and self-supply with cogeneration was simulated. The aim of the simulation was to determine independence from the central network by reducing the cost of energy use and increasing the share of RES.
The presentation shall focus on the advantages of implementing community-based micro-grids in small island localities. A number of value drivers for the implementation micro-grids shall be presented, both from a technical and a financial point of view. A specific case-study based on a pilot project implemented in the island of Gozo through the PEGASUS project shall be presented, highlighting economic advantages for different types of users within a community as well as potential advantages for grid operators.
In this research energy monitoring systems were developed within the EU project Together, where existing energy systems of four public buildings were upgraded with sensors, information system and data visualisation. Data visualisation was carried out by installing the monitor on the exposed part of building corridor, where energy indicators in 15 min intervals are presented, which encourage the buildings users, energy managers and owners to rise the awareness and change the behaviour in order to increase energy efficiency. The researh is extended with the results of StoRES EU project, where battery storage system and monitoring system with existing photovoltaic system in residential building were installed forming the microgrid in grid-connected mode of operation in order to increase the level of energy self-sufficiency.
AMIBIT addresses the increasing trend of digital transformation in the energy sector with own developed innovative hardware (controllers) and software solutions, which enable the monitoring and management of connected devices in real time, bringing users value on different levels (management, maintenance staff, administration, users), including: efficient energy use; lowering energy costs, CO2 emissions and energy consumption; encryption of data transfers aligned with GDPR and high security standards, energy system optimization, automation of energy-related processes, reporting and data inputs; alerting; better planning of resources; better user experience; automated energy bookkeeping and others.
Strategies in the field of secure energy supply encourage the use of local resources and smaller microgrids to optimize the production and consumption of energy. Self-sufficiency and local grids are becoming an increasingly important factor in planning of production and energy use. When designing and establishing local or so-called microgrids a lot of indicators must be considered: administrative, technical and financial, both on the production and users side. A proven business models show that optimal operating conditions can be achieved when microgrids operate with the support of the distribution network.
The goal of the microgrid model is to reduce energy costs for members of the microgrid community, to provide more reliable energy supply through the use of renewable energy sources (possibly in connection with energy storage) and to reduce losses in the distribution network in the upper part of the supply chain.
This paper discusses Imbalance Netting Process (INP) between multiple control areas (CAs) that was integrated in Continental Europe due to high costs of balancing energy. The purpose of INP is to net the demand for balancing energy between interconnected CAs with different signs of instantaneous interchange power variation. Results obtained with dynamic simulations confirm that INP reduces balancing energy and thus releases regulating reserve. Furthermore, the unintended exchange of energy is also reduced. Moreover, the obtained results also indicate the impact of INP on performance of the frequency control.
An analysis of the conditions in the vicinity of a grounding system (GS), when the fault current flows through a conductor which connects the above-ground and underground parts of the GS, requires the calculation of the electromagnetic field. The problem seems simple at first view. The computation space consists of a low-conductive part, soil in which the grounding is buried made of high conductive material, and of the air above the surface of the soil. The geometries of individual domain are usually simple, the electric and magnetic properties of the domain are linear, except in the case of the ionization of the soil.
The presented general problem of the GS is described by the full system of Maxwell’s equations.
In practice, we distinguish two separate examples:
In this paper, the process of establishing a coupled finite element model and a lumped model of the resistance spot welding system is presented. A more accurate analysis of the magnetic field density B in the core of the resistance spot welding transformer is required. This demands the use of a more detailed mathematical model using the finite element method to model the transformer inside the resistance spot welding system. The rest of the system is presented with a simple lumped model. Both models together represent a coupled model of the resistance spot welding system. The finite element model is coupled with a lumped model using special functions of solid and stranded conductors. The presented theoretical analysis is confirmed by numerical calculations using the Octave Circuit Simulator and Matlab software.
Non-destructive testing is now used increasingly often for the testing of materials. Deferent methods are used, and testing with eddy currents is one of them. In this case, we measure the magnetic flux density in the vicinity of the tested material which has changed because of eddy currents` absence in the damaged area. In our studied example, an excitation coil with a Hall sensor was moving on the upper side, and the crack was hidden on the lower side of the aluminium plate. As test plates we used 5 mm-thick aluminium plates with different cracks. Only deeper and longer cracks can be detected due to the substantial thickness of the plates. We also developed a procedure for fast estimation of the damage’s depth and shape. The presented problem is an inverse problem, which can be solved using different approaches. The most accurate is the direct approach, using a model made by the Finite Element Method (FEM). This approach means that we should model damage using an MKE model, and the calculated magnetic flux density should be compared with the measured density. Based on the differences between measured and calculated magnetic flux density, the damage’s MKE model should be changed until the calculated and measured values are the same. Such a procedure is very time consuming and, consequently, unusable. Therefore, for fast estimation of the crack we used the MKE model to calculate magnetic flux density for cracks with different depths and lengths in order to make a database. The results of the measurements were compared with the calculated values of the magnetic flux density from the database, and the dimensions of the damage were estimated on the basis of the comparison. The estimated crack’s dimensions, despite the small number of magnetic flux density sequences in the database, compare well to the actual damage’s dimensions. The time needed to make the evaluation procedure based on the comparison of the measured vales with the data form the database is very short.
Evolution of distribution networks, driven by the development of technology, integration of active elements, in what was once considered to be a passive part of an electric power system, as well as political and environmental regulations, results in the necessity for novel algorithms for design, control and optimization of operation of distribution networks. This paper discusses the possibility of closed loop operation of a medium voltage distribution networks and its impact on losses of electrical energy. Methodology for evaluation and comparison of a closed loop and radial operation, based on a load flow calculation with consideration of different loading models and measured loading and generation profiles, will be presented. The paper will also present fast method for optimal loop coupling and decoupling, yielding minimum power losses, while satisfying voltage constraints.
Modelling and optimization of voltage dependent load is always a current topic due to existence of an adequate load model, which is a prerequisite for calculation of steady states and the analysis of transient regimes of power systems. Given that it is important to know the load model parameters, we have performed the measurements in electric power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina (EPS BIH). The paper describes dynamic load models for real and reactive power and gives load model parameters obtained by dynamic load modelling and by Nelder-Mead optimization technique. The input data used in both approaches were obtained by measuring in the real system on the 35 kV side of the transformer.
According to presented results, it is visible that Nelder-Mead optimization technique can estimate parameters for real and reactive dynamic load models better then by modelling.
When electricity is transferred from the power plant to the final consumer, part of it is lost. Energy not being supplied represents cost for the transmission system operator therefore it is in its interest to reduce such energy. In general, the losses are divided on losses that are constantly present in the network and losses that are heavily dependent on the load. Because the Mongolian transmission system operator wants to know how efficiently the existing system transfer the electrical energy, the technical losses of the network from the load diagrams and the measured peak load was determined. The high voltage network under consideration covers five substations and four transmission lines that are very important, from the point of view of the electric energy transmission in Mongolia. Determination of the constant losses was not problematic, but for the variable losses calculation the so-called standard method was used.
Within the framework of the EU, efforts to reduce environmental impacts have been taken by Slovenia for a large-scale restructuring of the energy sector with a strong emphasis on electricity and renewable energy. This effort also includes the desire to electrify traffic, which is a prerequisite for the so-called decarbonisation of our society. Therefore, it will be necessary to strengthen distribution networks and build a large public charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. In view of the evolution of the technique, it will also be necessary to implement measures to encourage the electrification of transport. The paper provides arguments for the proposal that these incentives should be implemented through the construction of RES and distribution networks and information support for charging infrastructure. Many of these measures are reasonable to be carried out by state-regulated electricity distribution companies. In this way, the state would also maintain control over the development of the area, which in view of the importance for the national economy is necessary.
This paper deals with pedelecs and e-cars in urban transport systems in selected countries of the Danube region. Project eGUTS strives to exploit potentials of e-mobility in eight Danube cities, regions and beyond. To do so, the existing network of 22 partners will develop innovative eGUTS standards for cities supporting e-mobility, based on combined feasibility studies this project will elaborate and realize local action plans for deploying them, develop and test a smart tool, implement various pilot actions in the fields of road preference and parking policies, charging stations, rental spots, and more. Within the mentioned project 5 feasibility studies about electric mobility were developed. One feasibility study was focused on pedelecs and e-cars in urban transport systems in selected countries of the Danube region. Country specific information on e-mobility (pedelecs and e-cars) was gathered and is briefly presented in chapter 2. In addition, a common SWOT analysis for all selected countries of the Danube region was made and is presented in the conclusion of the paper.